'The strengths of Non-Native English Speaking Teachers' an infographic by Adam Simpson

This infographic presents the strengths most Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (NNESTs) have. It has been prepared by Adam Simpson (see Adam’s bio at the bottom of the page) with invaluable help from Michael Griffin (see his post “Equity without myths or stereotypes” here), Eszter Hajdics (her talk on NNEST strengths can be viewed here), Chio Rojas and Peter Lahiff, who all contributed ideas.

With this infographic we’re not arguing that NNESTs are better teachers than Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs), or that they should be hired indiscriminately. However, they are certainly not worse and should therefore be given the same employment opportunities in ELT as NESTs are.

Consequently, we want to highlight the strengths NNESTs have which can make them a valuable addition to any ELT staff room and institution. This is especially important since “native speaker fallacy” (Phillipson, 1992), or the belief that NS are inherently better suited for teaching English, is still prevalent in our profession, with over 70% of all advertised ELT jobs being for NS only (see e.g. Mahboob&Golden, 2013; Reucker&Ives, 2014; Selvi, 2010).

NNESTs strengths overlapping those in the infographic have been recognised by many researchers (e.g. Medgyes, 1992, 1994, 2001; Reves&Medgyes, 1994; Arva&Medgyes, 2000;Llurda, 2005; Cheung&Braine, 2007). Also, students are very much aware of them and appreciate NNESTs for their teaching skills rather than based on negative stereotypes (e.g. Lasagabaster&Sierra, 2002, 2005; Mahboob, 2004; Pacek, 2005; Benke&Medgyes, 2005; Lipovsky&Mahboob, 2010)

To sum up, there is no doubt that NESTs can be good English teachers and that they have many strengths. However, so do NNESTs, and we hope that ELT hiring practices will soon start to reflect the fact that the mother tongue neither makes nor breaks an English teacher. Because the ideal situation, the best of both worlds, for any language school, as well as for the students, is to have both NESTs and NNESTs.

NNEST strengths


  • Arva, V., & Medgyes, P. (2000). Native and non-native teachers in the classroom. System, 28, 355–372.
  • Cheung, Y. L. and G. Braine (2007). The attitudes of university students towards nonnative speakers English teachers in Hong Kong. RELC Journal 38, 3: 257–277.
  • Lasagabaster, D. and J. M. Sierra (2002) University students’ perceptions of native and non-native speaker teachers of English. Language Awareness 11, 132-142.
  • Lasagabaster, D. and J. M. Sierra (2005) What do students think about the pros and cons of having a native speaker teacher? In E. Llurda (Ed.), Non-native language teachers. Perceptions, challenges, and contributions to the profession (217-241). New York: Springer.
  • Lipovsky, C. and A. Mahboob (2010) Appraisal of Native and Non-native English Speaking Teachers. In Mahboob (ed.), 154-179.
  • Llurda, E. (2005b). Non-native TESOL students as seen by practicum supervisors. In Llurda (ed.), Non-native language teachers. Perceptions, challenges, and contributions to the profession 131–154.
  • Mahboob, A. (2004). Native or non-native: What do the students think? In L. D. Kamhi-Stein (Ed.), Learning and Teaching from Experience: Perspectives on Nonnative English-Speaking Professionals. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  • Mahboob, A., & Golden, R. (2013). Looking for native speakers of English: Discrimination in English language teaching job advertisements. Voices in Asia Journal, 1(1), 72–81.
  • Medgyes, P. (1992). Native or non-native: Who’s worth more? ELT Journal, 46(4), 340-349.
  • Medgyes, P. (1994). The non-native teacher. London: Macmillan.
  • Medgyes, P. (2001). When the teacher is a non-native speaker. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Pacek, D. (2005). ‘Personality not nationality’: Foreign students’ perceptions of a nonnative speaker lecturer of English at a British university. In Llurda (ed.), Non-native language teachers. Perceptions, challenges, and contributions to the profession. 243–262.
  • Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford University Press.
  • Reucker, T. and L. Ives. 2014. White Native English Speakers Needed: The Rhetorical Construction of Privilege in Online Teacher Recruitment Spaces. TESOL Quaterly,
  • Reves, T. and P. Medgyes (1994). The non-native English speaking EFL/ESL teacher’s self image: An international survey. System, 22 (3), 353–357.
  • Selvi, A. F. (2010). All teachers are equal, but some teachers are more equal than others: Trend analysis of job advertisements in English language teaching. WATESOL NNEST Caucus Annual Review, 1, 155–181.

adam simpson

Adam has been living and teaching in Turkey for more than a decade, all of that time spent in the tertiary education sector in universities in Istanbul. His interests include descriptive rather than prescriptive curriculum design, developing flexibility in lesson planning and the considered integration of technology in the language classroom. He regularly talks at conferences and is talks about his life as a teacher on his blog ‘Teach them English’. You can get in touch with him here.

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5 years ago

I completely agree with most of this but I’m afraid I have to take issue with the ‘only a 4 week CELTA’ part. I could tell you numerous cases of trainees I’ve had who’ve told me they got more from the CELTA than they did from a three-year EFL degree or similar. I couldn’t tell you one case of the contrary.

Surely quality is better than quantity? And surely teaching ability is more important than knowledge? Just as it’s more important than where you’re from?

5 years ago
Reply to  damo04

Dear damo04, as you surely know and understand, a 4-week CELTA course is not meant to teach and analyse grammar, phonetics and vocabulary. A 3-year EFL degree is. It’s quite a difference. I’ve done both: a 4-year degree (no, not enough to become a teacher, for sure) and a 4-week CELTA course (very important, but not surely filling contingent gaps in language analysis knowledge). Nonetheless, some of my course mates were very experienced NN teachers who needed the CELTA just because schools were requiring “that paper”, but who were already able to master the class (i.e. they easily got the… Read more »


[…] and make it a selling strategy, I have seen that this approach actually gets the best results (see this infographic for NNEST […]

Nik Peachey
4 years ago

I don’t really like this term ‘non-native’, as I feel that by nature it implies that these teachers lack something. I prefer the term bilingual as these teachers infact have additional knowledge rather than less knowledge and this additional knowledge of the students own language can be a huge benefit.


[…] asking, I’d recommend this post by James Taylor: Why I wish I was a non-native speaker, or this infographic by Adam Simpson about the strengths of ‘non-native speaker’ […]

3 years ago

I’m not sure I agree with the term ‘bilingual’. Doesn’t that suggest that your English is on par with your mother tongue? Although this may very well be the case for you, I’m in no doubt that this is not the case for the majority of non-native English speaking teachers. I have worked as an EFL teacher for more than 5 years in numerous countries, and didn’t complete my CELTA until 3 years after becoming an EFL teacher. (a strange way of doing it, I know) but there were at least 10 very competent and experienced NNESTs , however, none… Read more »

2 years ago
Reply to  Kane

/I’m not sure I agree with the term ‘bilingual’. Doesn’t that suggest that your English is on par with your mother tongue? Actually, not necessarily. According to one of the official classifications of bilingualism, there’re 4 types of bilinguals: 1) born bilinguals, 2) early bilinguals (those who started learning L2 when they were children, roughly 5 y.o. or less), 3) teenage bilinguals (those who started learning L2 when they were teenagers), 4) and adult bilinguals (those who started learning L2 when they were adults). So it depends on what you mean by ‘bilingual’ since technically it simply means ‘someone who… Read more »

2 years ago

Hi Adam and thank you for your inspiring infographics!
It is indeed true that most of the nNESTs do possess these qualities you are talking about. And it comes with no surprise for me that one of my colleagues who is the most popular among students is Japanese. They’re simply fascinated with the fact that a Japanese person (students are also Japanese) managed to learn English that well. They ask him tons of questions and want to speak English as fluently as he does. And they try twice harder not to disappoint him.

Would love your thoughts, please comment.x

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